Sura 29

We sent down to you the Book with the truth, so serve Allah, devoting your religion to Him … We sent down upon you the Book for mankind in truth. He who follows guidance does so for the good of his soul. (39:2, 41)
Orden ”we sent down to (upon) you the Book” kan lätt tolkas som att Koranen kom ner i sin färdiga form. Men faktum är att det var precis tvärtom. Det förvånar säkert många, men det fanns ingen färdig Koran när Muhammad dog år 632 v.t. Det han lämnade efter sig var fragment skrivna på 
 

Abu Bakr (första kalifen) sent for me (Muhammads skrivare Zaid bin Thabit) owing to the large number of casualties in the battle of Al-Yamama, while ‘Umar (andra kalifen) was sitting with him. Abu Bakr said (to me), ‘Umar has come to me and said, ‘A great number of Qaris of the Holy Quran were killed on the day of the battle of Al-Yamama, and I am afraid that the casualties among the Qaris of the Quran may increase on other battle-fields whereby a large part of the Quran may be lost. Therefore I consider it advisable that you (Abu Bakr) should have the Qur’an collected.’ I said, ‘How dare I do something which Allah’s Apostle did not do?’ ‘Umar said, By Allah, it is something beneficial.’ ‘Umar kept on pressing me for that till Allah opened my chest for that for which He had opened the chest of ‘Umar and I had in that matter, the same opinion as ‘Umar had.” Abu Bakr then said to me (Zaid), ”You are a wise young man and we do not have any suspicion about you, and you used to write the Divine Inspiration for Allah’s Apostle. So you should search for the fragmentary scripts of the Quran and collect it (in one Book).” Zaid further said: By Allah, if Abu Bakr had ordered me to shift a mountain among the mountains from one place to another it would not have been heavier for me than this ordering me to collect the Qur’an. Then I said (to ‘Umar and Abu Bakr), ”How can you do something which Allah’s Apostle did not do?” Abu Bakr said, ”By Allah, it is something beneficial.” Zaid added: So he (Abu Bakr) kept on pressing me for that until Allah opened my chest for that for which He had opened the chests of Abu Bakr and ‘Umar, and I had in that matter, the same opinion as theirs. So I started compiling the Quran by collecting it from the leafless stalks of the date-palm tree and from the pieces of leather and hides and from the stones, and from the chests of men (who had memorized the Quran). I found the last verses of Sirat-at-Tauba: (”Verily there has come unto you an Apostle (Muhammad) from amongst yourselves” [9.128-129]) from Khuzaima or Abi Khuzaima and I added to it the rest of the Sura. The manuscripts of the Quran remained with Abu Bakr till Allah took him unto Him. Then it remained with ‘Umar till Allah took him unto Him, and then with Hafsa bint ‘Umar. (1)

Uppenbarligen hade inte Muhammad några planer på att hans texter en dag skulle bli till en färdig Koran. Hade det inte varit för Abu Bakr, ‘Umar och Zaid skulle Muhammads uppenbarelser inte ha vilselett miljontals människor genom historien. Men det slutar inte här …

‘Uthman sent a message to Hafsa saying, ”Send us the manuscripts of the Quran so that we may compile the Quranic materials in perfect copies and return the manuscripts to you.” Hafsa sent it to ‘Uthman. ‘Uthman then ordered Zaid bin Thabit, ‘Abdullah bin AzZubair, Said bin Al-As and ‘AbdurRahman bin Harith bin Hisham to rewrite the manuscripts in perfect copies. ‘Uthman said to the three Quraishi men, ”In case you disagree with Zaid bin Thabit on any point in the Quran, then write it in the dialect of Quraish, the Quran was revealed in their tongue.” They did so, and when they had written many copies, ‘Uthman returned the original manuscripts to Hafsa. ‘Uthman sent to every Muslim province one copy of what they had copied, and ordered that all the other Quranic materials, whether written in fragmentary manuscripts or whole copies, be burnt. (2)

 


(1) al-Bukhari, Muhammad. The Hadith. Global Grey. Kindle Edition, s. 499.

(2) ibid.

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